Gut bacteria’s key role in immunity is tuned to the host species, researchers have found, suggesting that the superabundant microbes lining our digestive tract evolved with us — a tantalizing clue in the mysterious rise in human autoimmune disorders.A new study reports that the superabundance of microbial life lining our GI tracts has co-evolved with us. These bacteria, which are essential for a healthy immune system, are ultimately our evolutionary partners.This study, the first to demonstrate that microbes are specific to their host species, also sheds light on the “hygiene hypothesis.” According to this idea, increasingly hyper-hygienic environments might be contributing to a rise in childhood allergies, as these beneficial host-specific microbes are hindered by a plethora of antibacterial home products and cleaning chemicals.“For every cell in your body that is you, that contains your specific genetic information, there are approximately nine foreign bacterial cells, primarily in your digestive tract and even on your skin,” said Dennis Kasper, Harvard Medical School professor of microbiology and immunobiology and senior author on the paper. “From the viewpoint of cell count, every human being is 90 percent microbial. Now we’ve found that these bacteria, which we need for optimal health, are species-specific.”The paper appears in the June 22 issue of Cell.[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPO8-M_rcUo]That 500 to 1,000 microbial species inhabit mammals has long been documented. Researchers have suggested that when it comes to digestion and other metabolic activities, the particular species of bacteria may not be significant provided the bacteria contain specific, helpful genes. A bacterium that breaks down food in a mouse gut can probably do the same in a human.But the microbes that fortify our immune system have not been studied in this regard. Are they functionally unique, or would any species suffice?Hachung Chung, a postdoctoral researcher in Kasper’s lab, studied two groups of mice, both bred to lack microbial flora. For one group, she introduced microbial species that are natural to mice, and for the second, she introduced human microbes.For both groups of mice, an equal quantity of microbes, and an equal diversity of species, soon flourished in their digestive tracts.But despite this apparent similarity, when Chung examined the intestinal tissue, including intestinal lymph nodes, she discovered that the mice with humanized microbes had surprisingly low levels of immune cells, levels equivalent to mice lacking intestinal bacteria altogether.“Despite the abundant and complex community of bacteria that were in the human flora-mice, it seemed like the mouse host did not recognize the bacteria, as if the mice were germ-free,” said Chung.Chung repeated the experiment, only this time populating a third group of mice with microbes common to rats. This new group showed the same immune system deficiency as the humanized mice. “I was very surprised to see that,” Chung said. “Naturally, I would have expected more of a halfway response.”In a third experiment, Chung infected all the mice with salmonella. Almost from day one, the mice with human flora showed significantly higher levels of salmonella in their system than the mice with normal flora. The immune systems of the mice with human flora were effectively incapable of fending off the pathogenic bacteria.“This raises serious questions regarding our current overuse of antibiotics, as well as ultra-hygienic environments that many of us live in,” said Kasper. “If the bacteria within us is specific to us and necessary for normal immune system function, then it’s important to know if we are in fact losing these vital bacteria. Are we losing the bacteria we have co-evolved with? If that is the case, then this is yet further evidence supporting the idea that the loss of good bacteria is partly to blame for the increased rates of autoimmunity that we are now seeing.”
A couple years back, while looking at a slate of bands that might be booked for a festival, a good friend accused me of being fixated on acoustic guitar duos. Two guys. Two guitars. That’s it. I was told that was all I liked.While his proclamation was a bit tongue in cheek, and wasn’t entirely true, I must admit to a certain fondness for a stripped down acoustic duo. There is something about the intimacy that two musicians can create with their music that I find alluring.The songs don’t get lost within the dynamic of a larger band and the listener is free to hone his focus on what is happening between just two people. There is some validity to the statement that, sometimes, less is truly more, and the simplicity of what is taking place between the two musicians can be fascinating.I do believe it takes a certain caliber of musician to make a good duo work. First, both musicians have to have chops. A good chemistry between the partners also helps. Good songs are a must, too. There are certain duos out there that share this mojo; Tim O’Brien and Darrell Scott, Russ Barenberg and Bryan Sutton, and, when both were still alive, the partnerships between Jerry Garcia and Dave Grisman and John Cephas and Phil Wiggins were beyond extraordinary. When listening to these duos, I never lament the fact that there are just two musicians on stage. The music they make is perfect as is and wants for nothing.I am ready to add another duo to this list. Billy Strings and Don Julin, who have just released their latest record, Fiddle Tune X, are a study in contrasts, a cross-generational coupling, with some thirty years separating the close-cropped Strings with the longer haired Julin. The distance between their birthdays is aptly bridged, however, by the affinity they share for the music of the Appalachian coal country.Both Strings, on guitar, and Julin, on mandolin, are impressive pickers. Strings pulls from his Martin tonal sounds reminiscent of the great Tony Rice, and Julin calls to mind mandolin pickers like the aforementioned Tim O’Brien. As evidenced on Fiddle Tune , they also share great chemistry.Fiddle Tune X, recorded around a single microphone in a variety of live settings – you can hear audience chatter and even traffic sounds in the recording’s background – is a collection of old standards and original tunes. The record brilliantly captures the magic Strings and Julin create when they play together. Take a listen to “Walk On Boy,” featured on this month’s Trail Mix, which highlights Strings’ bluesy tenor and tasty guitar licks, or the tender tones of Julin’s mandolin on the duo’s rendition of Bill Monroe’s “Lonesome Moonlight Waltz.” Strings and Julin also rip through old standards like “Shady Grove,” “How Mountain Girls Can Love,” “Little Maggie,” and “Sharecropper’s Son” on the record. I have heard each of these songs many, many times by many other bluegrass bands, but Strings and Julin add a new spice to each, mainly because the instrumentation – just guitar and mandolin – is so varied from the banjo driven traditional bluegrass line up.When Billy Strings and Don Julin flank their condenser microphone, they command my rapt attention. It takes a special musical pairing to captivate me that way. After each listen, I am not left wanting more musicians, just more songs.
During a conference in Honduras in August 2013, judicial representatives from the countries which comprise the Central American Integration System (SICA) agreed to develop a uniform policy to fight gangs and other organized crime groups in Central America. “This initiative is about working together, and there is talk about unifying the types of criminal offenses, since there are nine, in order to tackle them in the same manner within SICA member countries,” said Erick Laguna, a Nicaraguan judge who presides over organized crime cases. In July and May 2013, security forces from Guatemala and El Salvador, in a joint operation, captured 200 suspected gang members. During the operations, security forces captured a high-ranking leader of MS-13, Angel Roberto Interiano Calderon, a Salvadoran who is known as “El Capo.” Security forces also captured two alleged Barrio 18 leaders, Nery Leonel Reyes Carranza, of Guatemala, and Adonias Joel Martinez, of Honduras. Martinez is known as “Cara Quemada.” ‘The Devil’ Unified response Gangs are still predominantly male, but the number of women and teenage female gang members is rising. The 2007 study “Maras and Gangs, Community and Policy in Central America,” found that 40 percent of Central American gang members were women or teenage girls. The study was conducted by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). The number of female gang members varies from country to country, according to studies. For example, in Honduras, an estimated 20 percent of gang members are women or teenage girls, InsightCrime.org reported. Almost all of the gang members in that country belong to MS-13 and Barrio 18. Some 22,000 gang members operate in Guatemala, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). At least 15 percent of the gang members in Guatemala are women or teenage girls, according to the Guatemala National Civil Police (PNC). The number of women prisoners in that country has doubled in eight years. Most of the female inmates were incarcerated for theft or homicide. Women gangsters must be tough Female gang members increasing Lucía Pérez, a high-ranking member of MS-13, told her story to La Vanguardia in September 2013. Pérez said she was recruited into MS-13 at the age of 12. She was given the nickname “The Devil.” “I was tough and brave. I earned a spot within the ranks,” Pérez said. Her back was covered in tattoos, which represented the “achievements” of the gang, she said. At the age of 20, Pérez has two children – and is serving a 35-year prison sentence for murder, robbery, and kidnapping. The Devil’s case is far from unusual: As is the case with most gang members and organized crime operatives, most women gang members end up incarcerated or die violently. Women and teenage girls who want to join a gang must show courage and loyalty, endure initiation beatings, and complete “missions” to pass their “check-up” before they are admitted to the gang, according to the report “Violent Women and Violence against Women”, by Interpeace, an independent international organization based in Switzerland. To join MS-13 or Barrio 18, women and teenager girls must endure beatings that last 13 seconds and 18 seconds, respectively. Or they can join by having sex with several gang members, according to the report. Women who choose to be beaten are given greater respect within the gang. MS-13 and Barrio 18 require lifelong loyalty from their members. Leaving the gang is considered a betrayal, which the gangs punish with death. Many women decide to try to leave a gang when they become pregnant or after they have given birth, according to the report. “It is very difficult for women to leave the structure of the criminal organization because they are dominated by the gang, dominated by their partner, and in the condition of becoming a mother, which (in some cases) leads them to remain within the gang,” Santos said. With increasing frequency, Mara Salvatrucha, Barrio 18, and other violent street gangs in Central America are women and teenage girls to not only transport drugs and collect extortion payments, but to work as enforcers. Gangs in El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are using more women and teenage girls than ever before, according to Jorge Santos, coordinator of the International Center for Human Rights Research (CIIDH) in Guatemala. Street gangs in those and other Latin American countries are using women and girls to commit more violent crimes than ever, Santos said. However, Mara Salvatrucha (which is also known as MS-13) and Barrio 18 appear to be gangs which use women and girls with the greatest frequency, Santos said. “Children, adolescents, and women are being trained by MS-13 and Barrio 18 gangs in handling weapons so they can be used as hitmen and in criminal intelligence work,” Santos explained. Even very young female gang members are participating in violence. For example, in July 2013, Guatemalan security forces arrested a 13-year-old girl on suspicion of participating in the killing of a man near Guatemala City. She was arrested with two other minors, both of whom are male. Security forces took two handguns from the suspects. By Dialogo October 31, 2013 This article is very interesting, I had never read it before. Really sad that young women feel they have to join a gang for protection or for a sense of family. There are other options out there, Christ is all the family anyone truly needs. He will protect you, love you, and keep you. Trust in the name of Jesus, He is maker and died so you can live in Him. God bless.
The year-round Rijeka-Munich route is already operating, ie it has continued uninterruptedly after the summer season, they point out from Rijeka Airport, and currently Croatia Airlines can fly to Munich every Thursday and Sunday with a Dash 8 Q400 aircraft. “The current traffic on this line is not very satisfactory since the average occupancy of aircraft in the past winter months was only 25%. However, this occupancy should be taken with a large amount of reserve since it is only the first year of this line during the winter, and potential passengers are not yet sufficiently aware of its existence, ie with winter lines it is normal that the habit of traveling during the winter is formed only after 3-4 years of turnover. The same can be seen from our experience with the year-round line to Cologne, which was introduced last winter, and this year continued with a change of destination to Düsseldorf, but these two cities are only 40km away, so it can be said that they are the same market. ” stand out from Rijeka Airport. The opportunity is there, let’s use it. If the route is not profitable in 2-3 years, it will be canceled, which gives a clear signal to other airlines. Namely, last year the average occupancy of aircraft on the line Rijeka – Cologne was 40%, while this year the percentage has risen to 55%. These are funds that help establish the year-round Rijeka-Munich airline. Until now, Rijeka has been connected to Munich via Croatia Airlines on Thursdays and Sundays from October 28.10.2018, 30.3.2019. to March 2018, 2019, and in accordance with the new financial resources, the mentioned line continued during XNUMX as well as in XNUMX, so Kvarner is connected by a year-round line with Munich. Rijeka Airport The decision of the Tourist Board provided additional funds for the implementation of strategic marketing campaigns in emitting markets in 2019 for advertising in cooperation with Croatia Airlines and the Kvarner Tourist Board, which provides funds for this cooperation in the same amount as the CNTB. By the way, after last year’s record season in which 30% growth was achieved in passenger transport, four new lines were opened at Rijeka Airport in 2019, and new lines are being opened. “In 2019 For now, we have confirmed the arrival of 4 new airlines: TUI, Volote, Lufthansa and Air Serbia, which will fly to 3 new destinations: London Gatwick, Marseille and Belgrade, and the already existing Munich. Belgrade will be another year-round line that will continue to operate after the summer season. Negotiations are currently underway with some other companies, but so far we have not confirmed any other new lines. ” conclude from Rijeka Airport. What is the most difficult and most important is to open a direct flight with a destination, it is the first prerequisite for the growth of tourism, especially in the pre- and post-season. And having a direct year-round line with Cologne and Munich is a big plus for the whole of Kvarner. Now it is necessary to sit at the table, all tourism workers, and target the mentioned markets in order to create demand, and thus the profitability of the line. This is an opportunity not to be missed. Out of the tourist season, Kvarner can certainly build its opportunity through events, health, active and business tourism.
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— Sixty-two percent of caucus-goers said they were looking for a Democratic nominee who they think can beat Trump. Thirty-six percent said they wanted a nominee who agrees with them on major issues.– Fifty-seven percent said they supported “replacing all private health insurance with a single government plan for everyone,” an initiative known as Medicare for All, based on the government healthcare plan for older Americans. Thirty-eight percent said they opposed it. The results may be a good sign for progressive candidates US Senators Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren who have championed Medicare for All on the campaign trail.– Thirty-seven percent said they were attending the Iowa caucuses for the first time, which appears to be below that of 2016. Four years ago, 44 percent of people attending the Iowa caucuses said they were doing so for the first time. In 2008, 57 percent said they were new to the Iowa caucuses.– Thirty-five percent of Democrats said before entering the caucuses that they picked their candidate in the last few days. That appears to be higher than the number of late deciders in 2016. Four years ago, 16 percent of caucus-goers said they had made their choice in the last month or earlier.– Forty-one percent of Iowa caucus-goers said healthcare was the issue they cared most about when thinking about picking a nominee. Twenty-two percent said it was the climate, 17 percent said it was income inequality and 14 percent said foreign policy.– The entrance poll also asked Democrats about which candidate they were supporting for the nomination. The selections are not predictive of the outcome, however, given that many Democrats will change their preferences if their chosen candidate does not win enough support in the caucuses.Edison, a Somerville, New Jersey-based exit polling firm, has been providing election-day poll data to a consortium of news organizations through the National Election Pool since 2004.Topics : As Iowa’s Democrats entered their party’s caucuses on Monday, defeating President Donald Trump in November’s election was at the top of their minds when considering which candidate to support for the party’s 2020 presidential nomination, according to preliminary findings by the National Election Pool (NEP).The NEP, a consortium of news organizations including Reuters that runs election-day polling through Edison Research, found most caucus-goers were simply looking for a winner instead of someone who agrees with them on the issues.Here are some highlights from the entrance poll based on interviews with 1,512 Iowa Democrats as they headed into the caucuses that kick off what could be a months-long nominating fight. The results will be updated as more interviews are collected.
“It’s not merely a hospital because we will use the health facility to observe and quarantine people with infectious diseases. For now, we are facing COVID-19,” Achmad told The Jakarta Post on Thursday.He added that the government would provide 340 beds during the first phase of construction, which is slated to be completed by late March. The facility would be equipped with a total of 1,000 beds.“We have employed 1,000 workers, who are assigned to work overtime until 10 p.m. every day so we can achieve the target,” Achmad went on to say.Read also: Residents now approve of construction of COVID-19 hospital in Batam, officials claim President Joko “Jokowi” Widodo is scheduled to visit Galang Island in Batam, Riau Islands, to oversee the construction of a health facility specializing in treating COVID-19 patients.Public Works and Housing Ministry expert staff member Achmad Gani Ghazali Akman said the President would check on the construction progress of the facility, which will be named the Transmitted Disease Quarantine and Observation Facility. Some construction materials had been prepared at Hang Nadim International Airport in Batam on Thursday, while the rest are still being transported to the city.Fabiyas, one of the construction project’s field supervisors, said President Jokowi was expected to visit the island on Saturday, as workers started to assemble the materials into modular buildings.“We are worried our work will be delayed because the vessel carrying the materials has been unable to dock at Batu Ampar Port because of a queue,” he said. “We have already reported this issue to our leaders in Jakarta.”Achmad, however, denied this claim. “From what I understand, the ship has yet to arrive in Batam,” he said.Batam Customs Office head Susila Brata was not immediately available for comment. (dpk)Topics :
HealthLifestyle Experts outline initiatives for future dengue vaccine and control of dengue fever by: – November 9, 2011 Sharing is caring! Share Tweet Image via: topnews.inSAN JUAN, Puerto Rico — Dengue v2V, a group of international experts in dengue, public health and vaccinology, held a meeting in Puerto Rico on 5–6 November 2011 to continue to outline steps for the introduction of a dengue vaccine once licensed. Dengue is a threat to almost half of the world’s population, and a public health priority in Latin America and Asia where epidemics are common.“Puerto Rico was a relevant venue for this meeting given its location and experience with both endemic and epidemic dengue activity,” said Dr Harold Margolis, Chief of the Dengue Branch at the Centers for Disease Control, Puerto Rico and co-chair of the meeting. “In addition to mosquito control measures, a dengue vaccine is seen as the best way to effectively control dengue.” “The well coordinated introduction of a dengue vaccine will be crucial to reducing the burden of disease, but vaccination programs are complex to implement and dengue itself presents unique challenges. It is critical that we anticipate the challenges ahead of us and start preparing now,” said Associate Professor Joseph Torresi, Austin Health and University of Melbourne, Australia, and co-chair of the meeting.Attendees at the meeting included dengue experts, vaccinology experts, and public health officials from Puerto Rico, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, France, the French Caribbean, Korea, Mexico, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States, who drew on their experiences with dengue and other vaccination programs to propose strategies for dengue vaccine introduction and evaluation of its effectiveness. Encouragingly, the most advanced vaccine candidate is in the final stages of clinical development.The meeting in Puerto Rico is part of the ongoing efforts of Dengue v2V to ensure that a dengue vaccine, once licensed, is readily available to those who need it most. The objectives of Dengue v2V include:• Documenting the human and economic burden of dengue• Providing guidance regarding vaccine adoption strategies based on clinical, epidemiological and other technical data• Making recommendations regarding the introduction of a dengue vaccine for routine and catch-up immunization The Puerto Rico meeting follows a regional meeting in Singapore in 2010 which focused on the introduction of a dengue vaccine into national immunisation programs in the Asia–Pacific region.Caribbean News Now Share 17 Views no discussions Share
Batesville, In. — The management of Dick’s Sporting Goods has elected to change its policy regarding the sale of some weapons. The full statement is included.