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Haitian farmers have toiled for more than a century to grow crops in the nation’s notoriously ravaged farmlands. A new soil-testing lab, scheduled to open in June, should help farmers in Haiti improve their yields. The University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences and the Atlanta-based non-profit League of Hope teamed up with agriculture officials in Haiti to open a soil-testing laboratory to measure plant nutrient elements, like phosphorus and potassium, on farmers’ fields. “The soil in some places is in very bad condition,” said agricultural scientist Eddy-Jean Etienne, who is helping to launch the soil lab. “To increase the productivity, it’s good to measure what is in the soil and what it’s lacking.” The lab will allow agricultural advisors in Haiti to help farmers find the fertilizers and soil additives they need to make their farms more productive. The information – including nutrient contents and pH levels – can also help farmers choose the most appropriate crop varieties for their fields. Haitian farmers produce only 30 percent of the food the country needs. Food supplies in Haiti have never been abundant, but they have gotten worse since the 2010 earthquake that destroyed much of the infrastructure around Port-au-Prince. Before the earthquake the average Haitian ate 2.6 meals per day. After the quake that number fell to 1.6 meals per day, said Graham Huff, director of League of Hope. The organization has been working on infrastructure; education and food supply issues in Haiti since 2009. “Even though the world’s been shipping in relief food, you have still seen a reduction in the amount of nutrition people are receiving,” Huff said. “It’s critical that Haiti supplies more of its own food, so the agriculture sector is a key focus for the long-term recovery of the country.” League of Hope partnered with the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences in 2010 to put UGA Cooperative Extension and outreach know-how to work in Haiti as part of the Haiti Agriculture Virtual Technical Assistance Program. The program uses the same web-based learning programs used in Extension offices across Georgia to help Haitian farmers get the information they need to improve their crops. So far they have built two agricultural outreach stations to serve farmers, one along the northern coast and one near Port-au-Prince in Mireballais. The new soil lab will be located at the station in Mireballais, about 50 miles north of the capital. Etienne trained this spring with UGA soil scientists David Kissel and Leticia Sonon in the college’s Agricultural and Environmental Services Lab in Athens. The new lab will basically be a scaled-down laboratory equipped with simple instrumentation and easy-to-follow analytical methods. The instruments are compact, tough enough to withstand harsh conditions and inexpensive to operate. Kissel and Sonon secured soil samples from Haiti to test while Etienne was in Athens. They knew the soils were going to be deficient, but they were still surprised at how poor some of them were. “We tested (the samples), and some were deficient in plant nutrients – either low in soil phosphorus or potassium, or both,” Sonon said. “These are the soils that the farmers are using to make a living … On some of the samples, the levels of plant nutrients were so low that the machines failed to give a reading. Poor soil fertility is no doubt one of the factors that explain the low crop yields in some parts of the country”. League of Hope and agriculture officials in Haiti plan to help farmers locate and develop locally available supplies of soil amendments once they find out which amendments are needed most, Huff said. “They are limited in what’s available to them,” Huff said. “They would use natural fertilizers like manure versus chemical fertilizers.” Sonon noted that farmers would only be given recommendations for amendments that are readily available in Haiti. Even if no soil amendments are available, farmers can still use the information provided by the tests to make better decisions about what crops to plant and where, Huff said. “We could select a plant or variety that is most likely to grow in that type of soil,” Huff said. “So it does give them information that will be useful, even if they don’t have the specific plant nutrients that are most deficient. Etienne believes the testing service will become very popular after farmers see the improvements in their yields. “Communication is very quick and easy in Haiti,” he said. “All you have to do is do a good job for one or two people, and farmers will be lining up.” Small farmers, spread out through the nation’s central valley and along the northern coast, grow most of the nation’s domestic supply of staple crops, Etienne said. While the CIA’s world fact book reports that about 40 percent of the labor force in Haiti is engaged in some sort of agriculture, they produce only about 30 percent of needed food supply, Huff said. Etienne, who graduated at the top of his class from the North Christian University of Haiti in 2004, is a veteran of other agricultural outreach projects.
5 Roberto Firmino – Like his countryman Coutinho, Firminos skills and finishing would make him a great striker. 5 5 5 Emre Can – Can is powerful and an adept defender as well as possessing a fierce long shot, a good option for defence. 5 Jurgen Klopp is still trying to get the best out of his Liverpool team the Premier League this season, but how would they fare in a five-a-side league?As all amateur footballers will testify to, the five-man game is a completely different animal to it’s 11-a-side big brother.Long balls become useless, the big man who is good in the air is redundant (sorry Christian Benteke) and the strong-tackling hard-man is pinged every time he risks his knees sliding on the astro-turf.So who would make your team’s five-a-side from the current crop of players? talkSPORT look at who would be the likely line-ups.Click the arrow above, right, to see the Liverpool five a-side team.Agree with talkSPORT’s selections? Let us know who you would pick in the comments section below!TOTTENHAM’S FIVE-A-SIDE TEAMARSENAL’S FIVE-A-SIDE TEAMMAN CITY’S FIVE-A-SIDE TEAMMAN UNITED’S FIVE-A-SIDE TEAMCHELSEA’S FIVE-A-SIDE TEAM Nathaniel Clyne (goalie rush) – Click the arrow, right, to see the rest of Liverpool’s five-a-side team – Strictly speaking, you cannot have rush goalie in five-a-side, but weve made an exception for Liverpool, given the goalkeeper alternative. Joe Allen – Controversial perhaps, but Allen has an engine and is a decent passer of the ball which are two key components in five-a-side. Philippe Coutinho – Coutinho is full of tricks and flicks and would be able to squeeze out of any small space with the ball intact.
Grab your peanuts and Cracker Jacks because Humboldt Crabs baseball season opens Friday.This year instead of the usual opening dinner at the Arcata Community Center the Crabs have something else cooked up for their fans who have been waiting for more baseball since last summer — the Crabs fan fest from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. today.“We are excited,” Humboldt Crabs Board of Directors member Tracy McCormack said. “It’s the first time we’ve ever done a fan fest at the ballpark.”Organizers of the event …
The divination experts see a new vision emerging from meteorites, portending disaster.If there was ever a coherent theory of how the earth got its oceans, it’s gone. The new reading of meteorites forbids it. Now, inventors of solar system models have to go back to square one. Whatever they come up with is bound to take more heat.Because the early earth was pictured to be molten with volcanoes going off and meteors hitting repeatedly, cosmogonists were forced into thinking that water arrived later. The ‘late veneer’ theory (which we call the ‘water balloon’ theory) claimed that the oceans were late arrivals, the water being delivered by comets and meteorites after things cooled down a bit.*For empirical support, they appealed to elements in chondritic meteorites, believing that elements embedded in the stones can act as “fingerprints” of conditions at the time of their formation. A new paper in Nature, however, claims that stable isotopes of ruthenium falsify the late veneer theory: “these data refute an outer Solar System origin for the late veneer and imply that the late veneer was not the primary source of volatiles and water on the Earth.” Moreover, these isotopes don’t match those in earth’s crust.What this implies is that earth’s water had to arrive earlier somehow. In “Meteorite Studies Reveal Surprises About Earth’s Formation” on Space.com, Elizabeth Howell speaks of double toil and trouble:Two studies published Wednesday (Jan. 25) in the journal Nature suggest that Earth’s main building blocks were rocks similar to meteorites known as enstatite chondrites, and that the planet got most of its water gradually during the formation process, rather than in one big burst toward the end.“The results presented in these papers lead to the troubling conclusion that the meteorites in our collection are not particularly good examples of Earth’s building blocks,” Richard Carlson, a geochemist at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, D.C., wrote in a commentary article that accompanied the two studies in Nature. (Carlson was not involved in either study.)At New Scientist, Chelsea White interprets the hidden message in the stones, concluding, “Earth’s water must have arrived here earlier than we thought.” (Who’s “we”, Paleface?)THE arrival of water on our planet is shrouded in mystery. Our leading theory says icy meteorites brought it here after most of the planet and its core had formed, about 4.5 billion years ago. But now an analysis of isotopes from meteorites seems to imply that the wet stuff got here much sooner.One of the authors is sufficiently confident to declare falsification of the late veneer theory. “We can now rule out water arriving on icy comets after the planet was mostly formed.” But if, as White concludes, “Earth’s water may in fact have been part of the very dust cloud from which the planet first condensed,” a number of new demons rise out of the shroud of mystery, scaring the scientist-diviners back to reality. They know that volatiles like water would have likely escaped during the violent, hot conditions that the spirits of the meteorites tell them must have taken millions of years, with up to 20 huge impacts needed to form the moon (1/10/17). The dust-cloud origin theory also begs the question of how the dust cloud got its water in the first place. Not surprisingly, all the articles and papers ignore this new, larger mystery: how did water survive on a violent early earth?*The ‘water balloon’ theory has long had problems. See 3/26/02, 12/27/07, 10/11/11, 7/23/12, and 12/11/14.Update 1/28/17: New Scientist offers a new idea: the earth made its own water from scratch. Andy Coghlan quotes a Canadian who concocted a model showing how chemical reactions in the mantle could produce water. Pressure would increase, emitting water through volcanoes. A Brit thinks most of the water produced that way would be “small scale and localized,” so most of earth’s ocean water still had to arrive from comets. Coghlan indicates that the pressure is more likely in the scientists’ heads, not in the mantle. “A study published this week, for example, based on isotopes from meteorites and Earth’s mantle, also found that water is unlikely to have arrived on icy comets after Earth formed, as has long been assumed.” Right after that, he quotes the Brit who says it had to come from comets – a contradiction, leaving the reader thinking neither model is workable.The scientists did not see the origin of the earth or its oceans. They did not see “the arrival of water on our planet” (notice the dodge; using passive voice “the arrival of water” avoids having to explain how it arrived). Their models are emanations of their starting assumptions. The only things they can measure scientifically are elemental abundances in meteorites and earth rocks. The rest is divination.Everyone has access to, however, an Eyewitness account. That account is corroborated by our own eyewitness testimony that earth’s water is not only vital for our planet’s habitability, but is beautiful, fun, and health-giving. It looks designed for a purpose. Chelsea may be more correct than she knows when she says, “Earth’s water must have arrived here earlier than we thought.”Now read the Bible’s warnings about those who use divination instead of believing God’s word: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Micah. Substitute “scientists” for “prophets” since today’s secular scientists, entering their Yoda trances, prophesy to the people about the “arrival” of earth, its water, the moon, and everything else, using modern divination techniques.(Visited 94 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Sudafrika, auch Schatztruhe der Welt genannt, verfugt uber reichhaltige mineralische Bodenschatze. Das Land produziert und besitzt einen erheblichen Anteil aller Mineralien weltweit.Sudafrikas Reichtum sind die schier unerschopflichen Bodenschatze: fast 90% der Platin-Vorkommen, 80% der Mangan-Vorkommen, 73% der Chrom-Vorkommen, 45% der Vanadium-Vorkommen und 41% der Gold-Vorkommen befinden sich hier. Nur Rohol und Bauxit kann das Land nicht bieten.Das Land ist ein fuhrender Produzent von Edelmetallen wie Gold und Platin, aber auch von Basismetallen und Kohle. Es ist der viertgroßte Diamantenhersteller, wobei Experten davon ausgehen, dass es immer noch potentielle weitere Vorkommen in Gebieten gibt, die noch nicht voll erschlossen sind.Stellenwert in der WirtschaftSudafrikas war uber ein Jahrhundert lang der weltweit großte Goldproduzent, wurde jedoch 2007 von China ubertroffen. Gold, einst der Schlusselfaktor in der sudafrikanischen Wirtschaft, hat an Bedeutung eingebußt, da die Wirtschaft des Landes vielfaltiger geworden ist.Allerdings ist der Bergbau in Sudafrika immer noch ein essentieller Wirtschaftsfaktor und Edelmetalle stellen 65% des Mineralienexports des Landes, was 21% des Gesamtwarenexportes 2006 entspricht. Das Land liefert 80% des Platins auf der Welt.Die Bergbauindustrie ist ebenfalls Sudafrikas großter Arbeitgeber mit uber 460.000 Beschaftigten und weiteren 400.000 weiteren Angestellten bei Zulieferern und unterstutzenden Dienstleistern.WandelDie Besitzverhaltnisse, der Zugang und der Abbau der mineralischen Bodenschatze des Landes wird im Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act of 2002 geregelt. Dieses Gesetz erklart den Staat zum Sachwalter uber diese Bodenschatze.Wandel ist eines der Hauptprobleme, mit dem der sudafrikanische Bergbau konfrontiert wird. Ein gleichberechtigter Zugang zu mineralischen Bodenschatzen wurde gesetzlich festgeschrieben. Eine erhebliche Beteiligung von bisher benachteiligten Gruppen ist der Gegenstand der brancheneigenen Verpflichtungserklarung im Zuge des “Black Economic Empowerment” (BEE).Derzeit sind uber 70% der Arbeitskrafte in dieser Industrie schwarz, davon allerdings nicht einmal 5% in leitenden Positionen. Die Regierung hat Vorgaben erlassen. Bis 209 wird von allen Bergbaugesellschaften erwartet, dass 40% der leitenden Positionen mit bislang benachteiligten Sudafrikanern zu besetzen sind.Weitere Zielvorgaben fur dien nachsten 10 Jahre sehen den Transfer von 26% der Bergbauanteile an Gesellschaften in schwarzem Besitz, und die Gewahrleistung, dass 51% aller zukunftigen Bergbauprojekte von Unternehmen in schwarzem Besitz kontrolliert werden.StarkenAls eines der Hauptbergbaulander zahlt Sudafrika hohe fachliche Kompetenz im Technik- und Produktionsbereich sowie umfangreiche Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeit zu seinen Starken.Das Land hat im Weltvergleich erstklassige Verarbeitungsanlagen fur Kohlenstoffstahl, Edelstahl und die Aluminiumindustrie, neben Gold und Platin. Sudafrika ist ebenfalls weltweit fuhrend in Sachen neue Technologien. Dazu gehort u. a. ein bahnbrechendes Verfahren, das geringhaltiges, extrafeines Eisenerz in hochwertiges Eisen umwandelt.Diese Art der Veredelung und somit der Wertsteigerung von Rohstoffen vor dem Export wurde vom Staat als einer der Hauptwachstumsbereiche herausgestellt. Hier liegen lukrative Ertragsmoglichkeiten fur nachgelagerte Aufbereitung und steigert den Wert von Eisen, Edelstahl, Kohlenstoffstahl, Aluminium, Platinderivat und Gold vor Ort.IndustriefuhrerZwei der weltweit großten Bergbaugesellschaften stammen aus Sudafrika. BHP Billiton, die großte Bergbaugesellschaft der Welt, kam im Zuge einer Fusion zwischen der sudafrikanischen Gesellschaft Billiton und dem australischen Unternehmen BHP zustande.Anglo American Plc, mit Borsennotierungen in London und Johannesburg, besitzt mehrere Tochtergesellschaften wie z. B. Anglo Platinum, Anglo Coal, Impala Platinum und Kumba Iron Ore.Der Diamantminenbetreiber De Beers, ebenfalls ein sudafrikanisches Unternehmen, ist im Besitz von Anglo American und einem Konsortium unter Fuhrung der Regierung von Botswana. Der weltweit wichtigste Diamantenproduzent baute 2007 ca. 51,1 Mio. Karat ab.Letzte Aktualisierung: September 2008SAinfo reporter. Quellen (Englische Websites):South Africa YearbookDepartment of Minerals and EnergyChamber of Mines of South AfricaStandard Bank: Economic Profile: South AfricaBusiness DayMining WeeklyMineweb
The best way to bring an entire crew together behind a single project is to share a vision. That’s where storyboards come in.Storyboards have been around for a long time. Think prehistoric cave paintings. In fact, some of my drawings look just like some of those ancient pictograms! One of the reasons I encourage film students to learn how to draw is because sooner or later, a drawing will convey a vision far more effectively than words ever could — particularly if you’re working abroad, where language is already an issue.Storyboards over TimeThe collage of storyboards above is a good sample of the boards I’ve worked with in my career. In the ’80s, most visual effects companies had in-house art departments that would create storyboards and key frame production paintings that captured the scale, mood, and dramatic intent of a particular scene or moment in the script. Most storyboards in those days represented all of the elements in each shot that could break down into schedule-able and budgetary terms — a visual menu, if you will. Art departments needed a lot of wall space because each board was tacked up, in sequence, for all to see and discuss.You should draw your storyboards with the project’s aspect ratio in mind. The three boards across the top are in 2:40 to 1 — or “widescreen” format. In the old, old days, art directors would actually draw with a specific lens in mind from a shoot-able spot determined from a plan view drawing — now that’s knowing your set.Storyboards vs. Pre-VisualizationWhat’s inherent to storyboards is that they are static and pre-visualization is not. The animated process of pre-vis gives the director a peek into the possibilities of framing, speed, and scale in a sequence. It’s a moving storyboard that you can edit and improve prior to actual shooting. The downside of pre-vis is that the animator may create something that is very difficult, if not impossible, to shoot. A lens may be too wide, a camera move may be too fast, or there may be a focus and magnification issue.Further, if everyone falls in love with the pre-vis, there is no room for a filmmaker to improve the sequence in the real world with real people. This happened to me once on a very big feature film: I thought I came up with a better, more efficient way to shoot a scene, pitched it passionately but was ultimately shot down because, “the studio likes it the way it is.” They had seen the pre-vis and wanted it shot exactly that way. Boring, and we also had to reshoot parts of it because the pre-vis didn’t translate well to live-action. I tried to warn them!Be Prepared.On the other hand, a storyboard is a guide that accommodates improvement during production. It’s an inventory of beats that the cinematographer will photograph in a real setting. Screen direction and blocking are TBD on the day of shooting. In other words, don’t be constrained by the boards.It’s why we mostly only board action bits and Visual FX sequences. Anything complex and potentially expensive needs meticulous planning. Never show up on the day without the equipment you need and only a couple of sketches on a napkin. The crew will punish you for it.We don’t board much in TV because they don’t want to pay for the illustrations, and there is rarely enough time to shoot the scenes properly as it is. In those cases, I’ll do some simple drawings of my own to keep track of the moments that are essential to the sequence.Work on your drawing, it’s a very handy thing to know how to do.All images courtesy of the author.What organization tips do you rely on? Let us know in the comments.
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Barnes swoops to earn Burnley crucial win at Huddersfieldby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveBurnley produced a critical victory at Huddersfield Town on Wednesday night.The Clarets’ win, their second in three days, was sealed when Ashley Barnes slotted home midway through the second half from Ashley Westwood’s pass.Huddersfield had taken the lead through Steve Mounie’s header in the 33rd minute but conceded an equaliser and had Christopher Schindler sent off within two minutes before half-time.Wood met Dwight McNeil’s low cross from the left six yards out and swept in for his fifth goal of the season.Schindler, who had earlier been booked for a foul on Wood, was then shown a second yellow card for hauling down McNeil on the edge of the penalty area.Defeat means bottom-of-the-table Huddersfield are eight points from safety.
TagsTransfersLoan MarketAbout the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say DONE DEAL: Stevenage sign West Ham midfielder Moses Makasiby Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveStevenage have signed West Ham midfielder Moses Makasi on loan until the end of the season.The 23-year-old, who is yet to make his senior debut for the Hammers, spent time on loan with Plymouth last season scoring once in seven appearances.He could feature for Boro in Saturday’s home game against Crawley.”Moses is a good footballer and I am really pleased we have been able to get this one over the line,” boss Dino Maamria told the club website.