Nov 4, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – Two studies just published by the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) suggest that injecting influenza vaccine just beneath the skin surface, instead of into muscle, may be a way to stretch flu vaccine supplies without sacrificing protection.In one study, young adults who received one fifth of the standard vaccine dose in an intradermal shot showed at least as strong an immune response as others who received full-dose intramuscular shots.In the second study, intradermal vaccination with 40% of a standard dose worked just as well as a standard intramuscular dose in adults aged 18 to 60. However, older adults showed a somewhat less vigorous response to the reduced intradermal dose.”In times of shortage such as the present, intradermal vaccination of healthy young persons with reduced-dose inactivated influenza vaccine could be considered in order to stretch vaccine supplies,” write Robert Belshe, MD, and colleagues, authors of the second study. NEJM published both studies online as early-release articles.Intradermal vaccination involves inserting a needle 1 to 2 mm into the skin, according to the two reports. The method has been used with some success for hepatitis B and rabies vaccinations, but it is not approved for flu vaccination in the United States.The study using young adults was conducted by a Gaithersburg, Md., company called Iomai, which is developing vaccine skin patches. Richard T. Kenney, MD, and colleagues recruited 100 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 40 years old and randomly assigned them to receive either a standard intramuscular dose of trivalent flu vaccine (15 micrograms [mcg] of hemagglutinin per strain) or a single intradermal dose at about 20% strength (3 mcg of hemagglutinin per strain).As measured by increases in hemagglutination-inhibition titers 21 days after vaccination, the immune response in the intradermal group was similar to or better than that in the intramuscular group, the report says. Those who received intradermal shots had more local reactions to the vaccine, but the reactions were mild and transient.The authors write that using reduced-dose intradmeral shots “is particularly appealing, because standard tuberculin syringes and needles can be used with multidose vials of influenza [vaccine] to increase the supply of influenza vaccine by a factor about five.” But they add that further studies are needed to show the “wide-ranging relevance” of the technique.In the other study, researchers from Saint Louis University, the University of Rochester, and GlaxoSmithKline assigned two groups of 119 people each to receive trivalent flu vaccine by intradermal or intramuscular injection. The intradermal shots contained 6 mcg of hemagglutinin for each strain, while the intramuscular shot contained the standard dose of 15 mcg for each strain. Each group was divided into younger and older subgroups—18 to 60 years and older than 60.In the younger people, the two injection methods both yielded serum antibody responses that were “vigorous” and not significantly different. The older subgroups also had a strong antibody response to both types of vaccination, but the response was somewhat better in those who received intramuscular shots. However, the difference was significant only for one of the three viral strains in the vaccine (H3N2).As in the other study, local reactions to the injections were more common among the intradermal group than the intramuscular group, but they were mostly mild.The authors suggest that the intradermal injections could be used for younger members of two of the groups assigned priority for flu vaccine in the current shortage: healthcare workers and close contacts of infants younger than 6 months. The researchers add that the intradermal technique is harder to learn than the standard technique, but vaccinators would be likely to use the method effectively after training.The two reports are hailed as significant in an accompanying editorial by the late John R. La Montagne, PhD, and Anthony S. Fauci, MD, of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). “Both of the current studies clearly show that intradermal vaccination may have greater immunogenicity than intramuscular vaccination,” they write. (La Montagne, who was deputy director of the NIAID, died suddenly this week.)On the basis of the two new studies and previous reports on intradermal immunization, “It is becoming clear that use of the intradermal route may at least partially overcome the relatively poor influenza-specific immune responses seen in certain at-risk populations, particularly the elderly,” La Montagne and Fauci write. They call for clinical trials in “a broad range of populations” to pave the way for approval of intradermal vaccination for flu.Kenney RT, Frech SA, Muenza LR, et al. Dose sparing with intradermal injection of influenza vaccine. N Engl J Med 2004;351(22) (published online Nov 3) [Full text]Belshe RB, Newman FK, Cannon J, et al. Serum antibody responses after intradermal vaccination against influenza. N Engl J Med 2004;351(22) (published online Nov 3) [Full text]
Governor Wolf Signs Animal Cruelty Prevention Bill June 28, 2017 Animal Welfare, Bill Signing, Environment, Press Release, Results Harrisburg, PA – Governor Tom Wolf today signed the animal cruelty prevention bill at a public celebration surrounded by advocates and members of the legislature.Act 10, House Bill 1238, was introduced by Rep. Todd Stephens, and updates and clarifies the existing animals abuse statutes and increases the penalties for abusing animals.“I am proud to sign the Animal Abuse Statute Overhaul into effect today, strengthening the penalty for animal abuse and neglect in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania,” said Governor Wolf. “Today is a day of celebration for all Pennsylvanians, and animal-lovers everywhere and I am proud to be a part of the true collaboration that helped make this landmark legislation a reality.”The overhaul bill includes:mandatory forfeiture of the abused animal to an animal shelter if the abuser is convictedstipulations to dog tetheringincreased protection for horsescivil immunity for veterinarians, veterinarian technicians, and humane society police officers to prevent frivolous lawsuits against these professionals when reporting animal cruelty in good faith“Today we are sending a clear message that Pennsylvania will not tolerate animal cruelty in our state and will punish offenders to the fullest extent of the law,” Rep. Stephens said. “This is the most comprehensive animal protection bill in the Commonwealth’s history and would not have been possible without the determined efforts of my colleagues in the House and Senate, the Governor and the thousands of advocates who contacted their elected officials expressing their support for the bill.”“The story of Libre’s shocking mistreatment and miraculous recovery helped spur a broader discussion of how we can better protect animals,” said Sen. Rich Alloway. “The result is a bill that not only toughens penalties against abusers, but also spells out the kind of treatment that is dangerous and unacceptable. Our pets are part of our families and depend on us for their care, so it’s far past time that we ensure abusers face a punishment that matches the heinous nature of the crime.”“Governor Tom Wolf’s signature today on House Bill 1238 marks a new era in Pennsylvania,” Rep. Ryan Bizzarro said. “Act 10, which takes effect in 60 days, is literally a new lease on life for the animals that depend on us for care, comfort and compassion. “Act 10 will help put an end to instances of torture and extreme neglect that are too rampant. Our animal friends deserve better.”“The passing of House Bill 1238 is an historic legislative step toward protecting the animals of Pennsylvania from abuse and neglect. We applaud the Pennsylvania General Assembly for their wisdom and actions in humane leadership to move this legislation forward to Governor Wolf to sign into law,” said Kristen Tullo, Pennsylvania State Director, Humane Society of the United States. “Animal advocates from across the state and country deserve much credit as they joined forces in support of this legislation to make a difference toward passage of the bill.” SHARE Email Facebook Twitter
The scheme is poised to enter the PPF, with benefit cuts of 10% for members who have not yet retired.RAA deals have also been struck in full or in principle with Halcrow and Tata Steel UK, but in these cases the arrangement involved the creation of a new scheme that will operate outside the PPF.In TPR’s mind the proposed new mechanism would be separate from and additional to its power to wind up a scheme when it becomes clear the scheme may never be able to meet its funding obligations.On its wind-up power, TPR called for these to be revisited “to allow us to take into account all our objectives which are relevant to DB when considering to exercise it”.In its response to the government’s DB green paper, the regulator also called for more powers in relation to scheme funding and information gathering, and for the requirement for a trustee board chair’s statement to be extended to DB and hybrid schemes.“Being able to set clearer standards and to shift our dynamic with all of our regulated community so that we can monitor against those standards on an ongoing basis, not just when a breach is detected, is essential to our being a more proactive regulator,” it saidIn relation to scheme funding, TPR advocated it being given the power to set binding standards in detailed codes or guidance, supported by a legally enforceable “comply or explain” regime.The regulator also said there was a case for more powers to encourage employers to make higher deficit repair contributions where they can afford to do so.TPR called for more comprehensive interview and inspection powers for information-gathering purposes, and the ability to impose civil penalties in addition to criminal penalties for non-compliance with information requests.On consolidation, TPR said it supported a voluntary approach. Extending the requirement for a trustee board chair’s statement combined with a legal requirement for trustees to update on what they are doing to control costs could provide a significant impetus, it added. The UK pensions regulator has floated the idea of allowing stressed pension schemes to be separated from the employer on the basis of scheme viability rather than the risk of employer insolvency.Responding to the government’s review of defined benefit (DB) scheme regulation, the Pensions Regulator (TPR) said it might “be worth exploring” whether there was room for a mechanism allowing for such a separation.Currently, UK law allows for a sponsoring employer to cut its financial obligations to a scheme if this would avoid the company becoming insolvent. The statutory mechanism for this is a regulated apportionment arrangement (RAA), which must be approved by TPR and the Pension Protection Fund (PPF) and satisfy certain conditions.RAAs are rare, but have grabbed headlines in the past few months. The UK arm of household appliances company Hoover agreed an RAA , which was at risk of insolvency as a result of the funding needs of the pension scheme.
More than 30 new Youth Councillors from the Donegal Youth Council met in the Regional Cultural Centre last Saturday for a team building day and also to plan for new projects which will run across the year.The Donegal Youth Council, which is made up of young people from all across the county from Carndonagh to Carrick, will meet regularly each month in Letterkenny and also in their local electoral areas to work on identified topics of Youth Facilities, Mental Health/ Suicide, Health & Well Being, Education and Bullying. Donegal Youth Council is funded by Donegal County Council, HSE Health Promotion and the Department of Children and Youth Affairs and aims to provide young people with opportunities to identify, prioritise and work on topics and projects which have been identified by the wider youth population of the county.It also aims to provide young people with opportunities to have their voice heard by being involved in the development of local services and policies which affect them.As part of their work on Saturday the young people of the Donegal Youth Council also voted “Bullying” as their chosen topic to be put forward for this year’s national Dail na nÓg event. Dáil na nÓg is the National Youth Parliament of Ireland.It gives young people in Ireland the opportunity to represent the views of those under the voting age of 18 at a national level, and to call for changes to improve the lives of young people in Ireland. Donegal Youth Council is co-ordinated at local level by the Donegal Youth Service. For more information you can contact Donegal Youth Council Co-ordinator Marty Keeney on 087-6806676 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. DONEGAL YOUTH COUNCIL UP AND RUNNING FOR 2013 was last modified: March 5th, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Donegal Youth Council