Intradermal shots could stretch flu vaccine supply

first_imgNov 4, 2004 (CIDRAP News) – Two studies just published by the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) suggest that injecting influenza vaccine just beneath the skin surface, instead of into muscle, may be a way to stretch flu vaccine supplies without sacrificing protection.In one study, young adults who received one fifth of the standard vaccine dose in an intradermal shot showed at least as strong an immune response as others who received full-dose intramuscular shots.In the second study, intradermal vaccination with 40% of a standard dose worked just as well as a standard intramuscular dose in adults aged 18 to 60. However, older adults showed a somewhat less vigorous response to the reduced intradermal dose.”In times of shortage such as the present, intradermal vaccination of healthy young persons with reduced-dose inactivated influenza vaccine could be considered in order to stretch vaccine supplies,” write Robert Belshe, MD, and colleagues, authors of the second study. NEJM published both studies online as early-release articles.Intradermal vaccination involves inserting a needle 1 to 2 mm into the skin, according to the two reports. The method has been used with some success for hepatitis B and rabies vaccinations, but it is not approved for flu vaccination in the United States.The study using young adults was conducted by a Gaithersburg, Md., company called Iomai, which is developing vaccine skin patches. Richard T. Kenney, MD, and colleagues recruited 100 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 40 years old and randomly assigned them to receive either a standard intramuscular dose of trivalent flu vaccine (15 micrograms [mcg] of hemagglutinin per strain) or a single intradermal dose at about 20% strength (3 mcg of hemagglutinin per strain).As measured by increases in hemagglutination-inhibition titers 21 days after vaccination, the immune response in the intradermal group was similar to or better than that in the intramuscular group, the report says. Those who received intradermal shots had more local reactions to the vaccine, but the reactions were mild and transient.The authors write that using reduced-dose intradmeral shots “is particularly appealing, because standard tuberculin syringes and needles can be used with multidose vials of influenza [vaccine] to increase the supply of influenza vaccine by a factor about five.” But they add that further studies are needed to show the “wide-ranging relevance” of the technique.In the other study, researchers from Saint Louis University, the University of Rochester, and GlaxoSmithKline assigned two groups of 119 people each to receive trivalent flu vaccine by intradermal or intramuscular injection. The intradermal shots contained 6 mcg of hemagglutinin for each strain, while the intramuscular shot contained the standard dose of 15 mcg for each strain. Each group was divided into younger and older subgroups—18 to 60 years and older than 60.In the younger people, the two injection methods both yielded serum antibody responses that were “vigorous” and not significantly different. The older subgroups also had a strong antibody response to both types of vaccination, but the response was somewhat better in those who received intramuscular shots. However, the difference was significant only for one of the three viral strains in the vaccine (H3N2).As in the other study, local reactions to the injections were more common among the intradermal group than the intramuscular group, but they were mostly mild.The authors suggest that the intradermal injections could be used for younger members of two of the groups assigned priority for flu vaccine in the current shortage: healthcare workers and close contacts of infants younger than 6 months. The researchers add that the intradermal technique is harder to learn than the standard technique, but vaccinators would be likely to use the method effectively after training.The two reports are hailed as significant in an accompanying editorial by the late John R. La Montagne, PhD, and Anthony S. Fauci, MD, of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). “Both of the current studies clearly show that intradermal vaccination may have greater immunogenicity than intramuscular vaccination,” they write. (La Montagne, who was deputy director of the NIAID, died suddenly this week.)On the basis of the two new studies and previous reports on intradermal immunization, “It is becoming clear that use of the intradermal route may at least partially overcome the relatively poor influenza-specific immune responses seen in certain at-risk populations, particularly the elderly,” La Montagne and Fauci write. They call for clinical trials in “a broad range of populations” to pave the way for approval of intradermal vaccination for flu.Kenney RT, Frech SA, Muenza LR, et al. Dose sparing with intradermal injection of influenza vaccine. N Engl J Med 2004;351(22) (published online Nov 3) [Full text]Belshe RB, Newman FK, Cannon J, et al. Serum antibody responses after intradermal vaccination against influenza. N Engl J Med 2004;351(22) (published online Nov 3) [Full text]last_img read more

Mbappe switch to Real Madrid was ‘almost done’ before COVID-19

first_img Promoted Content11 Strange Facts About Your Favorite TV Shows11 Most Immersive Game To Play On Your Table Top5 Of The World’s Most Unique Theme Parks8 Things That Will Happen If An Asteroid Hits Earth8 Superfoods For Growing Hair Back And Stimulating Its GrowthEver Thought Of Sleeping Next To Celebs? This Guy Will Show You7 Things That Actually Ruin Your PhoneYou’ve Only Seen Such Colorful Hairdos In A Handful Of Anime7 Universities Where Getting An Education Costs A Hefty Penny10 Risky Jobs Some Women DoDid You Know There’s A Black Hole In The Milky Way?Fantastic-Looking (and Probably Delicious) Bread Art Kylian Mbappe was reportedly set to join Real Madrid from Paris Saint-Germain before the coronavirus pandemic.Advertisement “But with what has been happening, I’m sure that Mbappe’s arrival at Real Madrid will be postponed.“There is no way that Mbappe will extend his contract with PSG.“They will have an agreement between them in place because PSG agreed to let him go this summer.“In my opinion, it’s just a question of time.”Read Also: Ronaldo shares cute family pic to wish fans Happy EasterMbappe had scored 30 goals in all competitions this campaign before the season was suspended.Discussing his admiration for the forward previously, Madrid boss Zidane said: “You know that I have known him for a long time.“I am already in love with him, firstly as a person, because he came to do a trial here a long time ago.”FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmail分享 The Frenchman moved to PSG from Monaco in 2017 and remains under contract until 2022.However, ex-Parc des Princes star Jerome Rothen believes it is “just a question of time” before Mbappe completes a transfer to Madrid.And the 42-year-old says he almost finalised his move prior to the Covid-19 outbreak wreaking havoc.Speaking to Radio Monte Carlo, Rothen, who won two titles during his six years at PSG, claimed: “I know from club sources that a deal to take Kylian Mbappe to Real Madrid was almost done.center_img The 21-year-old striker has long-been linked with a switch to the Galacticos, whose boss Zinedine Zidane has made no secret of his desire to sign the hotshot. Loading… last_img read more

12-foot, 463-pound gator hit by semi-truck on FL highway

first_imgA nearly 500-pound alligator was captured after it was found wandering along a Florida highway earlier this month.The Florida Highway Patrol and Broderick Vaughan, the owner of Vaughan Gators responded to the scene after reports of a massive alligator.Vaughan was able to capture the gigantic reptile safely and said it was one of the largest alligators he’s confined.The alligator had to be euthanized a few days later due to severe injuries received from being hit by a semi-truck, according to the company.last_img read more

Live Blog: 2015 Paddle for the Peace

first_imgThe 10th annual Paddle for the Peace is taking place today on the Peace River near Fort St. John and Hudson’s Hope.  This Live Blog will cover the events from the Paddle that will include special guests like David Suzuki, NDP agriculture critic Lana Popham, former chair of the Agriculture Land Commission Richard Bullock and more.We will post pictures, comments and more from the event.Construction of the Site C Dam is expected to start later this month.- Advertisement -The live blog is below.last_img read more